Marcel Breuer

Portrait of Marcel Breuer, Photo: Irene Bayer, around 1928.
Portrait of Marcel Breuer, Photo: Irene Bayer, around 1928. Bauhaus-Archiv Berlin / unbekannt.
  • Born on 21.5.1902 in Pécs, Austria-Hungary | today Hungary
  • Died on 1.7.1981 in New York, USA

  • Nickname Laiko
    Lajos


  • Professions Architect, Designer

    Networks
  • Novembergruppe
  • Bauhaus Weimar: Student
  • Bauhaus Dessau: Master and teacher

Networks

  • Novembergruppe
  • Bauhaus Weimar: Student 4.1920–3.1925: Preliminary Courses, Joinery
    1924 Journeyman's Examination at the Weimar Chamber of Crafts
  • Bauhaus Dessau: Master and teacher 1925–1928: Jungmeister

Marcel Breuer received a scholarship to attend the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna in 1920. He switched to the Staatliches Bauhaus in Weimar the same year and attended Johannes Itten’s preliminary course. From 1920/21 to 1924, he studied at the carpentry workshop taught by Walter Gropius. In 1924, he passed his journeyman’s examination at the Chamber of Crafts Weimar and initially became an associate journeyman in the carpentry workshop with flexible working hours and a fixed salary. His job was to facilitate between the masters of form and the masters of works.

After his appointment by Walter Gropius as a junior master in 1925, he directed the furniture workshop, also known as the carpentry workshop, until 1928. In 1925, he created the B3 chair, the first design for a tubular steel chair for domestic use. In 1926–1927, Breuer founded the company Standard Möbel GmbH with Kálmán Lengyel in Berlin. That same year, he married fellow Bauhaus member Martha Erps.

Breuer left the Bauhaus in 1928. He opened an architecture office in Berlin, employing the former Bauhaus student Gustav Hassenpflug. Breuer continued to work as an interior designer and furniture designer (Piscator apartment) in Berlin. However, his many architecture projects were not realised. In 1933, Breuer moved his office to Budapest. Two years later, he relocated to England and founded an architecture office together with the architect F. R. S. Yorke. In 1937, he moved to the United States and received a professorship for architecture at Harvard University Graduate School of Design with the help of Walter Gropius. Together with Gropius, he directed an office in Cambridge, Massachusettes, until 1941. The same year, Breuer established his own architecture office, which he moved to New York in 1946. In 1956, he founded the practice Marcel Breuer and Associates, Architects in New York. This realised a number of major projects in the United States and Europe (Whitney Museum of American Art in New York, UNESCO Building in Paris).

Literature:

∙ Arnt Cobbers, (2007): Marcel Breuer 1902–1981. Formgeber des 20. Jahrhunderts, Köln.
∙ Magdalena Droste, Manfred Ludewig (1992): Marcel Breuer Design, Köln.
∙ Alexander von Vegesack, Mathias Remmele (2003): Marcel Breuer. Design und Architektur, Weil am Rhein.

More information of Marcel Breuer

Mention

Folke Dietzsch (1991): Die Studierenden am Bauhaus. Eine analytische Betrachtung zur strukturellen Zusammensetzung der Studierenden, zu ihren Studien und Leben am Bauhaus sowie zu ihrem späteren Wirken, Diss. A, Hochschule für Architektur und Bauwesen, Fak. Architektur, Weimar.

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